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How do I Write an Essay Using References?

How to Cite an Essay Online in MLA

❶All footnotes are compiled into endnotes at the end of the work, on the bibliography page.

Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay

How to Cite
Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay
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The Sound and the Fury. This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury. Follow the format for an essay found in an anthology. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Publisher, Year of Publication. Include different information for essays published in journals. If you found the article in an academic journal, you have a different set of information to include.

Some of the information — like author name, essay title, and page range — stay the same. But you should follow this format exactly: Add electronic information for sources found in online databases.

These databases store electronic versions of print journals as PDFs. The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: The date of access is the date on which you found the essay.

In MLA, all dates follow this format: Determine if APA is the right style for your document. APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well. Learn what information to include in-text. In APA, though, you must add a third element: A further difference from MLA is that you include the in-text citation wherever the cited information is.

If you mention the author by name in the sentence, the year appears in parentheses immediately after it. Morrow argues that "quoted material" p. The page number always appears immediately after the quoted or referenced material appears. Morrow argues that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite p.

If you don't name the author in the sentence, put all three pieces of information in the parenthetical citation. It may be argued that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite Morrow, , p. The order of information in the parenthetical always goes Author, Year, Page. Distinguish in-text between multiple sources by the same author. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on.

Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're discussing. You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a. Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p. Add the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M.

Format the citation in the Reference List. Essay found in a print anthology: Title of chapter in sentence case. Title of article in sentence case. Decide which kind of Chicago style formatting you should use. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting. It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and date of publication, as well as a bibliography.

Place footnotes at the bottom of the page. At the end of the sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript.

Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. Put endnotes after the body of the paper. Format your notes properly. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not. Publisher, Year , Page range. Essay found in print journal: Essay accessed through online database: If not available, add the url. Shorten the note for each source after the first usage. You can provide only the name and page number, or name, shortened title, and page number.

Either way, you include a note pointing the reader to the first note for that source, where they can find full bibliographic information. Meisner, "The Way We Live," If you have multiple authors with the same last name, just include the first name.

However, many people choose to create a consolidated list of sources. While the notes are numbered and appear in the order in which the sources appear, the bibliography is alphabetized. If you include a range of sources, some of which you read but did not specifically need to cite for the paper, you should call the document a "Selected Bibliography.

But unlike the notes, the first line is not indented, while subsequent lines are indented. Format the bibliography entries properly. Use parenthetical citations in-text.

Just like in MLA, the Chicago Author-Date style inserts a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, before the period. But the information included in the parenthetical is more like APA: There is no punctuation between the author and date, but the date and page number are separated by a comma: The worldwide population of bees is in significant decline Brown , Brown points out that the worldwide population of bees is in significant decline , Include information to distinguish between multiple authors and essays, if needed.

If you have multiple authors with the same last name, include the first initial in the parenthetical citation: If you have multiple essays by the same author, the reader should be able to distinguish them by the year you've provided.

But, if you have two articles by the same author and published in the same year, you mark them with a letter, like in APA. The letter again corresponds with the alphabetization of the essay titles by first major word: Create a reference list. However, a more specific subject, such as the history of Easter, would be an easier topic to write about. Research the chosen topic. Use note cards to organize the information.

Place quotation marks around any direct quotes from a source to avoid plagiarism. Sources can be books, magazines, encyclopedias, people or websites. Organize your notecards by subtopic. For example, if you were writing an essay about the Black Death, transmission of the disease and symptoms could be potential subtopics.

Make an outline of your essay from notecards. Write down each main idea, and list each subheading beneath it. Do not repeat any ideas in your outline. Compose a first draft. Read over what you have written, and make any necessary changes to the essay's structure to insure all of your main topics have been covered. Read your essay aloud to see if the language flows naturally.

Correct any grammar, punctuation and spelling errors. Use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the same page as the information you cited, while endnotes should be written in a list on a separate page at the end of the essay, according to InfoPlease.

List all of the sources used for the essay in a bibliography. All sources should be listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.


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Writing an essay is an unavoidable task for any high school or college student. While researching, notating and composing an essay may seem like a daunting prospect, there are simple steps one can.

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Aug 29,  · How to Cite an Essay. Whether you're a high school student or a professional writer, you may need to cite your sources using a specific formatting style. While there are many different styles out there, the three most commonly used ones Views: K. The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. Though APA format is commonly followed in most reference essays, there are still a lot of ways on how you can include your sources in your writing.

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References are often used to support information discussed in essays. References help back up arguments, prove major points and make the essay more reliable. When you use references to validate the major points in your paper, you are showing the reader that your arguments are not based on your personal assertions. The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer.